Povijest

Povijest (4)

Tuesday, 20 November 2012 16:30

Crkve u okolici

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  Grožnjan - Crkva Sv. Vida - Staro groblje
     
  Grožnjan Crkva Sv. Kuzme i Damjana

na malom trgu izvan zidina, nalazi se crkvica iz 1554., kako navodi natpis
uklesan u kamen nad ulazom. Posvećena je svetom Kuzmi i Damjanu, obnovljena 1834., a ima i sačuvanu preslicu, bez zvona. 1954. obnovljene su unutrašnjost i velika lopica poduprta krhkim stupovima. 1988-89. slikar Ivan Lovrenčić unutrašnjost oslikava freskama - suvremenim likovnim jezikom.

Istočni vanjski zid nosi ploču sa zapisom: "dobrovoljnim radom i darovima vjernika iz
okolice, sagrađena"

     
  Kostajnica - Crkva Sv. Petra i Pavla

Kostanjica se spominje kao župa 1304. godine. -Sagrađena na starim temeljima 1747. godine -Ugrađena stara krstionica -Proširena 1770.
     
 







Završje - Crkva Blažene Djevice Marije
     
 





Završje -
Crkva Blažene djevice Marije i Svete krunice
     
 







Završje - Crkva Sv Roka
     
 



Čepić -
Crkva Sv. Marije Snježne kod Čepića XV.stoljeće
     
 

Kave -
Crkvica Sv.Florijana
Kasna romanika Oko crkvice bilo je groblje
     
 





Kave - Crkvica Sv.Florijana
Kasna romanika Oko crkvice bilo je groblje
     
 



Šterna
- Crkva Sv. Mihovila Šterna
Sagrađena 1750. godine Posvećena 1757. godine. Krstionica ima tekst na glagoljici iz 1541. godine.
     
 


Šterna -
Crkvica Sv. Kancijana - groblje i Poklonac sa likom Sv. Antuna
     
 





Vrnjak -
Crkva Blažene djevice Marije Žalosne - groblje
     
  Dolina rijeke Mirne - Baštija - Crkva Majke Božje

Posljednjom rekonstrukcijom, 1999. g. ustanovljeni su stariji zidovi i temelji koji su duboko ispod sadašnjeg nivoa. Graditelji današnjeg zdanja pustili su unutar crkve mogućnost pristupa za iskopavanja u najdubljim slojevima. Prvi spomen crkvice potječe iz 1610. god. Pouzdano se zna da je tada nastala na još starijem hramu. Uz nastanak lokacije za ovu crkvicu postoji legenda: Rijeka Mirna bila je plovna do Ponte Portona. Nekoć su ribari lađom prevozili kip Majke Božje. U jednom su trenutku začuli riječ "Bašta / Basta / Dosta!" Tu su se zaustavili i označili mjesto za hram. Zato crkvicu i lokaciju nazivaju Baštija.
     
 









Sveti Juraj -
Crkva Sv. Jurja
( 1291. romanika )
     
 



Antonaca - Crkva Sv.Petra
     
     
     
Wednesday, 14 November 2012 08:20

Župna crkva Sv. Vida, Modesta I Krešencije

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Prvi put u pisanim dokumentima spominje se 1310.g. Prvotno je bila posvećena Uznesenju blažene djevice Marije, a kasnije Sv. Vidu, Modestu i Krešenciji. To je jednobrodna apsidna crkva koja je 1770.g. rekonstruirana u baroknom stilu, tako da se na glavnom pročelju ističu četiri polustupa s kapitelima. U njoj se nalaze Girardijeve orgulje iz 1846.g. (trenutno su na restauraciji). Središnji oltarski motiv predstavlja mučeništvo Svetog Vida, Modesta i Krešencije u rimskom Koloseumu iz 303.g., a naslikao ga je slikar Ermenegildo de Troya 1914.g. Zaštitnici Grožnjana slave se 15. lipnja.

Pored glavnog oltara nalaze se rezbarene korske klupe iz renesansnog doba (1711.g.), primjer su umjetnosti nadahnute narodnom tradicijom. Osim glavnog oltara, u crkvi su još 4 manja, isto tako mramorna, koja su posvećena: 1. Milosrdnoj Djevici Mariji (kip je djelo Enza Morelija); 2. Srcu Isusovom 3. Sv. Blažu, Sv. Sebastijanu, Sv. Roku i Sv. Valentinu (slikarski motiv iz 1716.g. djelo je Francesca Travi); 4. Sv. Antonu Padovanskom, Sv.Antonu Opatu i Arhanđelu Mihaelu. Od 2008.g. na ovom olltaru je i slika blaženog don Francesca Bonifacia, koji je proglašen blaženim 04. listopada 2008.g. u Trstu.

Blaženi don Francesco živio je i radio na području Krasice i Grožnjana, gdje je 11. rujna 1946. god. pogubljen kao Kristov svjedok. Oltar posvećen Sv. Blažu, zaštitniku grla, kojeg Grožnjanci slave kao svog suzaštitnika 03. veljače, posjeduje privilegij trajne indulgencije, na temelju posebnog papinskog ukaza iz 1801.g. Papa Pio VII, koji je sa svojom fregatom „Belona" našao utočište u Tarskoj vali 1800 god. unaprijedio je istim ukazom grožnjanske svećenike i kapelane, podigavši župu Grožnjan na razinu nadžupe. Pored župne crkve uzdiže se zvonik visok 36 metara.

Sagrađen je između 1603.g. i 1682.g. Izvan zidina nalazi se crkva posvećena sv. Kuzmi i Damjanu iz 1554.g. Na groblju se nalazi crkva Sv. Nikole (19. St.), a nedaleko nje kapela Sv. Duha iz 1598.g. U župi Grožnjan nalaze se još: crkva Sv. Vida s grobljem, crkva sv. Ivana Krstitelja (XV st.), crkva sv. Blažene Djevice Marije od Baštije (XV.st., ponovno sazidana 2000.g.), Crkva sv. Florijana (XIV st.)i crkva sv. Antuna Opata ( 1919.g. sagrađena na ruševinama stare). U starim dokumentima spominju se i crkve sv. Roka i sv. Martina u Grožnjanu, ali nisu očuvane.

 

 

 

Wednesday, 14 November 2012 08:20

Recent History

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During the Austrian rule the Groznjan area flourished. Building of the Parenzana railroad in 1902 enhanced development of trade and agriculture. Wine, olive oil, eggs and other produce were sold in Koper and Trieste. According to the 1910 census, the town of Groznjan had 1,658, and the municipal area 4,028 inhabitants. Groznjan had a doctor, post office, school, lawyer, notary public, oil- processing plant, bakery, groceries and clothing stores, two butcher's, several inns and various trade shops (shoemakers, blacksmiths, tailors, carpenters, etc.). The fall of the Austrian Empire, the subsequent Italian rule and the Great Depression had its consequences. In the 1920s people started to emigrate, looking for work in Trieste and overseas.

During the rule of the Kingdom of Italy Groznjan attained waterworks, the area was electrified, and the Mirna river valley was reclaimed. After the fall of Italian fascist regime in 1943, the popular uprising spread, and Croatian, Slovenian and Italian anti-fascists liberated the area from the Germans in 1945. In September 1943 the People's Liberation Committee proclaimed that Istria would unite with the Croatian homeland. The newly-founded Provincial People's Liberation Committee of Istria confirmed the decision; ZAVNOH and AVNOJ followed. In 1947 the Peace Treaty with Italy was signed. Istria was divided into two parts, the Yugoslav one and the Free Territory of Trieste, which was divided into Zone A, controlled by the US Army, and Zone B, controlled by the Yugoslav Army. Groznjan become a part of Zone B. On October 5, 1954 the London Memorandum was signed;

In 1965 Groznjan was declared a TOWN OF ARTISTS. Artists started to revive the town. Members of associations of artists from Croatia and Slovenia moved in and saved the town from further decline. Sculptor Aleksandar Rukavina organized and synchronized various activities. Artists transformed old, abandoned houses into an art colony which has since become a place of residence and work for many of them.

Zone A was assigned to Italy, and Zone B to the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1975 the Osimo Agreement defined the border between Italy and Yugoslavia, whereas Zone B irrevocably became a part of Yugoslavia. The London Memorandum provided a possibility of opting out which - together with nationalization, confiscation, forced cooperatives, poor agrarian policy (instead of traditional crops like grapes, olives and fruits, farmers had to grow wheat), severing of traditional ties with Koper and Trieste, limitation of religious freedoms, forced school reform, and various other restrictions and fear-mongering - contributed, along with strong Italian propaganda, to a mass exodus. By April 1956 two thirds of the population emigrated from the area, and in Groznjan itself only a few families remained.

Official languages are Croatian and Italian; many speak Slovenian as well. In Groznjan this is a fact of life.

Some of Groznjan's empty houses were taken over by people from the surrounding area. In 1965, when the Town of Arts was founded, some houses were given to artists from Croatia, Slovenia and Vojvodina, and some were assigned to the Cultural Centre of the International Music Youth Federation in 1969. Thus Groznjan, once a town of tradesmen, has become a town of artists. Now during the summer months sounds of magical music echo among the renovated houses - with loggias and tiny arches, cylindrical chimneys and architraves with coats of arms and inscribed dates, decorated with wrought iron - in cobblestone streets and in little squares, so that Groznjan will not be forgotten.

 

 

 

Wednesday, 14 November 2012 08:18

History: Past Centuries

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Driving down the ancient Via Flavia road from Buje to Vizinada, you will notice a 228-metre high cone-shaped hill on the left. At the top of the hill, among the houses, you can see a church tower. This is Groznjan, the ancient Graeciniana. The terraced hill, covered with old vineyards and olive gardens, is actually a sandy elevation created from the erosion of two streams, the Kanistran and the Pision. The town's poetic coat of arms shows an arm holding a white lily and reaching towards the sun. Povijesni tekstovi prvi puta spominju GROŽNJAN 1102. godine. From Groznjan you can enjoy a view of about 20 surrounding villages, fields on the Bolara and Kostanjica hillsides on the left, meadows of the Bijele zemlje (White Lands) and Baredina slopes on the right, the Mirna valley below, and the coastline from Novigrad to Umag. This is one of the most beautiful and most fertile areas in Istria.

The land around Groznjan is partly mountainous and partly flat, very fertile, with many olive groves, vineyards and orchards. By the town gate there is St. Nicholas cemetery with many cypress trees, and about a kilometer to the northwest there is a gentle plateau of St. Vitus with and old, abandoned cemetery and a little church with mortuary. At the edges of the plateau there are Peroj and Rimska palaca (Roman Palace), where mosaic pieces, Roman coins, and remains of a rich settlement and a road have been found. The Groznjan area also includes St. Florian on the Karst, and it ends with the Mirna river in the south, where the Bastija harbour used to be. In 1500 boats still sailed up the Mirna to this harbour. In the west the Groznjan territory once included Nova Vas, a little town near Brtonigla. In 1371 the Nova Vas area, including the St. George castle on the Mirna, came under the rule of Venetian podesta situated in Groznjan.

The town, once known as kastel (castle), was surrounded by thick walls, the remains of which are now a valuable historic heritage. It had two gates, and the one still existing, called the Great Gate, used to have a drawbridge. It is situated in a beautiful place where a road from Ponte Porton ends. From a magnificent lookout on the wall, where once the smaller gate used to be and where a Venetian column still stands, one can see far to the horizon. The houses are built tightly next to each other, in the typical medieval style. In the church of Sts. Vitus, Modest and Crescentia there is an altar, believed to have special powers, which was donated by pope Pius VII in 1800. It was handed through special edict to the priest Michele Dubaz during the pope's visit to Tarska vala (Tar Cove), where his frigate Bellona took refuge from a storm.

Between the two town gates, on a little square outside the walls, there is a small church built in 1554, as inscribed in a stone above the entrance. It was dedicated to Sts. Cosimo and Damian, and renovated in 1834. The spire has been preserved, but there is no church bell. The interior and a large atrium supported by fragile columns were renovated in 1954, and in 1986 a renowned Croatian artist Ivan Lovrencic painted the interior. Apsidal cathedral in the centre of Groznjan was built in the 14th century and renovated in the baroque style in 1770, when four supporting beams and capitals on the façade were added. The cathedral, originally dedicated to Virgin Mary, is today a church of Sts. Vitus, Modest and Crescentia. The parish church was first mentioned in 1310. Its interior was repainted in 1965. Pews, decorated in folk tradition, were built during the Renaissance. The sacristy and a reliquary date from 1612. A large painting in the bottom of the church, known as the painting of the patron saint, was done by Ermengildo de Troy and depicts the martyrdom of saints Vitus, Modest and Crescentia in the Roman Colosseum in 303. Next to the church is a tall bell tower, octagonal at the top and built of yellow sandstone. Near the parish church there used to be two small churches, of St. Rocco and St. Martin, built in the 14th century. A Venetian loggia fontica from 1557 has, fortunately, remained. It has four columns and a limestone floor; inside there are four Roman tombstones. This ancient loggia used to be a court's meeting place.

Groznjan once had its own statute consisting of four books and written in Italian in 1558. It seems, though that the town had its own statute as early as 1358, the year it became a part of the Venetian Republic. Code of law and the statute are written on the parchment paper, and include a miniature of Madonna flanked by St. Vitus and St. Modest, with the town's coat of arms below them. Legend has it that on the first day of Lent judges made fritulas and gave them to passers-by, who were supposed to pay their respects or otherwise they would be fined. Podesta's palace in Groznjan was renovated twice, in 1588 and 1726. During the centuries Groznjan and surrounding area were inhabited by various peoples and changed many rulers. Histrians, Illyrians, Celts, Greeks, Romans, Ostrogoths, Langobards, Franks, Germans, Slavs, Italians and others have lived, mixed and fought for power there. Groznjan was once a Roman fort and various inscriptions, coins, mosaics, as well as toponyms like Vrh Roman (Roman Peak), speak of their presence.

The fort of Groznjan was first mentioned in 1102, when Istrian marquis Ulrich II and his wife Adelaide donated their Istrian property to a patriarch of Aquileia. In this document the burg was called Castrum Grisiniana. In 1238 it was probably ruled by Vicard I Pietrapelosa. In 1277 a number of Slavic families were invited to settle and cultivate the fiefdom's lands. In 1286 Vicard II Pietrapelosa pledged the fort with patriarch Raymond as a guarantee of war reparations. In 1287 Vicard aligned with Venetians, his former enemies, and gave Groznjan to them. After the war the fort was returned to its previous owners. Vicard's son Pietro inherited Groznjan after his father's death in 1329, and when he died in 1339 it again became patriarch's property. The patriarch rented it to Furlanian noble family de Castello. In 1354 Groznjan's new owner became Volrich, or Ulrich, Reifenberg, who in 1358 sold it to Venice for 4,000 ducats in order to pay his debts. Volrich was a son of Deitalm, a descendant of Aquileian patriarch Volcher, and in 1356, during the war between Venice and Hungary, his army, entrenched in Groznjan, strongly resisted the Hungarian army. Yet it seems that at the same time Volrich negotiated the surrendering of Groznjan in Venice. The town was probably taken by Hungarian and Croatian troops led by Mikiza, a son of the Croatian vice-roy.

Archdeacon of Budim, who documented it, called the town Krisignan of Volrich Rosumberk. Venice took Groznjan over in 1358 and ruled until its demise in 1797. Slavic families, invited by German feudal lords, settled in the abandoned villages of the area as early as the 14th century, before Venice bought Groznjan. In 1359 the Umag captain Pietro Dolfin moved to his new residence in Groznjan, and in 1360 and 1367 he fortified the town walls and renovated the palace. Captain's Office moved from Groznjan to Raspor in 1394, when a central rule, which included Sveti Lovrec Pazenaticki, was established for the whole area. Since then Groznjan was governed by Venetian noblemen who were given the title of podesta.

From the early 16th century Groznjan's podestas were chosen among Koper noblemen. In the 15th century judicial duties were performed by the Pietrapelosas, and in 1446 the town walls were fortified in order to protect from possible Turkish attacks. After the terrible plague in 1630 the Groznjan area became almost completely deserted. In order to revitalize the area the St. Mark's Republic brought Italian families from Veneto, Carnia and Furlania provinces; these were mostly tradesmen who settled in towns. Slavic families were settled in villages in order to develop agriculture. All settlers in Istria were given free land and were exempt from fiscal duties and work obligations for twenty years; the only condition was to cultivate the land within five years. Economic success of colonization of villages reflected on the towns as well: trade and transportation developed and demographics improved. After the fall of Napoleon's Empire in 1813, his Illyrian provinces, including Groznjan, became part of the Habsburg Empire. In 1816 Austrian emperor Francis I visited Groznjan on his tour through Istria and met with the local clergy and population.

 

 

 

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Turisticka zajednica opcine Grožnjan
Ente per il turismo - Comune di Grisignana
Touristichegemeinschaft Grožnjan
Tourist association Grožnjan

Development: Studio WEB ART